From ending world hunger to improving global healthcare, the SDGs seek to shape development … To recognise the vulnerabilities and capacities of an affected population is essential for creating and implementing the most effective disaster response. Transect walks are useful as part of the initial engagement with the community and during community risk assessment. First and foremost is the need to overcome current economic trends that are rapidly degrading ocean resources through unsustainable extraction of marine resources, physical alterations and destruction of marine and coastal habitats and landscapes, climate change, and marine pollution. Match community contacts with the right target audience and train people for specific actions within the intervention. Where the day-to-day efforts of the community workers happens and includes the following tasks or questions: - Location of people at risk: Where on the hazard map is the people living or working that is most at risk. Participation of the community also decrease the occurrence of creating dependence rather than developing existing capacities. By understanding the dominant trends it can contribute vital information to the assessment on particularly how does the environment influences vulnerability. Ask open ended questions Then to establish how those behaviours can be changed and actively teaching people exactly what to do and not to do. Economic development benefits of compact and efficient development include transportation cost savings, as well as decreased VMT (vehicle miles traveled) and VHT (vehicle hours traveled). 1.1. Water Pollution: Fresh and sea water contain a lot of dissolved minerals. They cover more than two-thirds of the earth’s surface and contain 97% of the planet’s water. (2019a). A major problem is the lack of a common understanding of what sustainable tourism or “ ecotourism” means. Routes must traverse settlement areas, fields, rivers, woodlands and grazing. - Long-term warnings: warnings that is issued months ' a year in advance. In order to become actionable, the blue economy concept must be supported by a trusted and diversified knowledge base, and complemented with management and development resources that help inspire and support innovation. Different hazard analysis methods can be used, some provide quantitative data and others qualitative data. The advantages are so much that they are not exhaustive. The first — related to an enduring obsession among climate wonks— has to do with the limitations of existing modeling. The goals are to get a better picture of the disaster situation, particularly when things are difficult to verbalize and to cross-check verbal information. - Physical Factors: the available productive resources, skills and hazards. On par with the principles that underlie sustainable livelihood approaches, public-private partnerships are encouraged as well as the need to mobilise all resources to combat poverty. - Identify high-risk behaviour: To identify high-risk behaviour, one must determine which acts or omissions cause adverse incidents and disasters. In a workshop based session, the community members can brainstorm lists of the resources and capacities they can think of as individuals or community members. To review secondary data it must be collected first and this can be done - Ensure social and intergenerational equity Qualitative research produces descriptive data such as peoples own words and generally there is no numbers or measurements are linked to observations. Use answers given to ask new lines of questions sustainable development”. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - Potential threats to the community These costs and benefits may be direct or indirect. The goal is to identify the local capacities available and the resources that people rely on in times of disasters; to identify which resources are easily affected by disasters and to identify the resources that is accessible and owned by the individuals or the community. People can then list sources of livelihood, events and conditions on the vertical axis. To get to the effects of the problems, ask for the consequences of each problem. - Relevant legislation and government policies regarding human-made hazards. As a side effect of environmental legislation development and increased costs of waste management, mining moved from developed countries to other regions. The data itself is based on facts that can be placed into two categories: quantitative data that produces values and particular quantities as the result and the second type is qualitative data which descriptive with regards to the quality of the data object. - Processing of information and dissemination of warnings to authorities and population ' History, reason for formation A gender specific calendar would provide insight into gender-roles and divisions of labour. These different vectors, however, are unequally known and hard to model, in terms of both scope – where they will occur, where they will be felt the most – and severity. ' Papers presented at Sustainable City 2021 are to be published in a volume of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (Electronic ISSN: 1743-3541). Small teams can implement this by conducting individual household interviews simultaneously in the following way: This relates to how people grasp and achieve sustainable development. The proceedings of this conference, Innovative Coastal Zone Management: Sustainable Engineering for a Dynamic Coast, comprise more than 60 peer-reviewed papers presenting current international research and practical applications, highlighting the latest advances and solutions and identifying key areas for further research and debate. Inform the community members that you would like to learn about the community and in particular about the aspects that you have chosen. 1.3. A verification code will be sent to you. For example, participatory poverty analysis have shown that people's concerns stretch well beyond income. According to the EUROSION study (Doody et al. - Make people aware of changes The problem-tree tool can be used in the following manner: Early Warning Systems - Post-Traumatic Stress: the condition of shock that is experienced by a person after exposure to a traumatic event. These tools include time line, community mapping, seasonal diagrams, activity clocks, children's drawings, transect walks, time trend, and the needs matrix. Industry Initiatives for Sustainable Tourism Problems Decreased access to natural resources for the local communities and environmental degradation 4. Therefore this sort of accidents can produce a variety of situations from injury or loss of life to loss of load or spillage of hazardous materials. 2013: 93. Semi-structured interviews can be conducted by a team of 2 ' 4 people that follows the below listed steps. The advantages of literature review is the daily activities of the participants are not disrupted and since the data is in writing, it can easily be obtained. Decide which kind of map should be drawn and which features must be shown ' physical or geographical features, households with special needs or community resources. The community's physical geography: Geographical area; position in terms of other surrounding communities; access to the community; sections such as business / residential (formal and informal) / industrial; infrastructure available in the community; natural habitat including climate, rainfall and temperature Climate change increases the costs of development in the poorest countries by between 25 and 30 percent. Use the accepted and recognised system of communication that is accepted by most members of the community. A participatory assessment can consist of three components that can be combined but can also stand on its own as a participatory assessment. How can coping mechanisms be enhanced to reduce vulnerabilities. In this step the decision need to be made about limits on interventions or if interventions are to be more elaborate with aims at environmental changes, infrastructure changes, systems and processes. This is also a kind of progress of human social civilization. Estimate costs and benefits: resources are always limited, therefore establish the maximum output with the minimum input. For example, excluding marine aggregate dredgers from an area for conservation purposes will result in economic impacts both directly (e.g. The condition for qualitative research is the commitment to see the point of view of the participant objectively and this is then why close involvement is recommended. ' Community development plan Tel +27 21 880 2010 Fax +27 21 880 2083, © 2020 TRALAC TRADE LAW CENTRE NPC, 2001/020251/08. Victims often have some sort of a system on how to organise supplies and the international aid community need to respect this and not rush in to the situation with pre-determined delivery goals that may undermine the local capacities and traditions. Benefits of Attending. Participatory Research as a tool to analyse Sustainable Livelihoods List alternative programme objectives, estimate the cost of each alternative program objective, and estimate the loss-reduction of each programme objective. Make notes discreetly. E.g. This tool can be used by a team that is involved in facilitating a community members meeting during the latter part of a situational analysis or a community risk assessment. A blue economy provides SIDS and coastal LDCs with a basis to pursue a low-carbon and resource-efficient path to economic growth and development designed to enhance livelihoods for the poor, create employment opportunities, and reduce poverty. Civil Aviation Authorities of a country are also enforcing strict rules with regards to use and standards of aircraft in order to reduce aircraft accidents because the general dynamics of this mode of transport cause that there are little to no survivors in the case of an accident. Contemporary human-made hazards: Step 1: Identification of major disaster risk issues as well as hazard and community analysis. o Institutional and social network mapping: reveals the formal and informal organisations that influence people's lives and it captures the perceptions of their importance and relationship to one another. ' In Africa most other forms of transport is inefficient, which affects the amount of road transportation used. Shipping Disasters: The shipping industry have unique possibilities for disasters. The OECD advocates greater use of economic analysis (e.g., cost–benefit analysis—identifying and quantifying types of cost, types of benefit; valuation techniques) and economic instruments (e.g., taxes, fees, tradable permits) to enhance the effectiveness of integrated ocean management. Residents spend less time in traffic and more time at work and in their communities, thus increasing productivity. var addy3c32c2377212b4372340269201eb3ec7 = 'info' + '@'; ' - Conduct the interview within 1 hour and start by introducing yourself and stating the purpose of the interview. - Forewarning: The time between warning and impact. 4. Historical Profile: is the result of information gathering about past experiences. Vulnerability is increased if capacities are ignored instead of supported. ' Who controls access to the resources Assist them to get started but let them draw the map by themselves. Capacity building can be define anyway from helping others to help themselves to assist or encourage democratisation and accountable government. - Hazard type: Community members can indicate the kinds of hazards that have or could affect their community. The combination of different substances that is released into the air can result in acid rain which can be harmful. Von Kotze & Holloway suggest that the facilitator must not interfere but rather relax, be patient and observe what happens. Tourism development requires an involvement of human activity in the natural resources. Since it is anonymous no one would have to defend their answer or opinion. - Physical or Material: Called 'livelihood resilience'. The decision needs to be made which aspect will be considered first, hazard or community. The International Institute for Sustainable Development refers to the 'Brundtland Report' whom define the term sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. - Key-informant interview: to gain special knowledge about a particular topic, this is usually a specialist or well experienced person in a particular field. 2010. Once everyone agrees on the list, the group can discuss the following: - Enhance economic vitality Examples of this category includes: What are the formal political structures and the informal systems such as decision making, establishing leadership or organising a variety of socio-economic activities. All life forms ate reliant on clean fresh water for survival but some sources place an area / community / environment at risk of consuming contaminated water. Question 2 Methods of participatory assessment need a shift in attitudes and behaviour towards listening, standing back, being respectful towards the target group / individual and asking to be taught by the target and be open to learning. Appreciative inquiry: The next step could be to then do risk and capacity mapping at household level. The blue economy has diverse components, including established traditional ocean industries such as fisheries, tourism, and maritime transport, but also new and emerging activities, such as offshore renewable energy, aquaculture, seabed extractive activities, and marine biotechnology and bioprospecting. Air Pollution: occurs when hazardous material and pollutants are released into the atmosphere. Interventions by international agencies are often based on what can be supplied instead of what the affected locals need. i. 2013: 91. With regard to the community, it is important to remember the following: If an individual is aware of and understands the risks, the individual can choose to adapt behaviour in order to avoid or even reduce the risk or to prepare for the hazards. - Continue discussion on how the household copes in times of stress. This can be used to identify local major problems or vulnerabilities as well as the root causes and effects. A full list of EU policies and actions supporting Goal 14 is available below. Therefore damage that is caused in one place will affect sustainable livelihood someplace else on the globe because space is shared. The researchers are frank: “Current economic models are deeply inadequate in capturing the opportunities of such a transformational shift, or the grave dangers of climate inaction,” they write. - If the focus is problems or things that don't work people are influenced to see themselves as victims. The assessment may need to be conducted in a staggered way in order to accommodate the people's daily or seasonal livelihood activities. Terms and concepts must be communicated across barriers such as language which requires adaptation and that meanings are localized. Establish the cost of materials and review current programmes to determine the advantages of purchasing material or making your own. - The people can then list the work they do against each of the sources of income (livelihood) by marking the months and duration, age and gender can also be added. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; Behind the devastating coastal resources depletion that many countries are sufferingare several major driving forces, including some areas of misunderstanding. Secondary data review: This type of data review consist of visiting libraries, government offices, universities or research centres, maps and newspaper extractions. - Identify gender specific work division, in times of disaster and in normal daily life. - Use focus groups to make a list of organisations they consider to be important to the community. If the hazard is analysed first, one will find out which communities is affected by the hazard. 2. Land uses and covers will vary according to seasons and therefore asset maps can be done and linked to seasonal calendars or historical timelines that highlight important trends and changing patterns of land use or cover. (Earthquake vs. storm system vs. drought). Further participatory research encourage active participation of the people that is researched and whom the project is going to assist. Engineering a Better World 5 The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) provide a universal framework to tackle the biggest problems facing our planet. - Identify High-risk Times: Can be time of day / week / year with higher incidence of events as well as the types of incidents occurring at certain times. Once the above questions are answered, one can design a programmes package and establish how to produce the programme materials. They are usually not far from where the adults gather and may be a good time to initiate drawing. In order to develop appropriate and effective preparedness and mitigation measures the following points of the assessment matrix should be considered: Learn more . After every explanation in order to reach the root causes. At the end of this step a crucial decision can be made about the specific objectives of the intervention. 7. 2013: 124 - 127. Inform them what to expect and reinforce messages with endorsements by opinion leaders. - Visualise the interactions of physical environment and human activities over space and time If not halted, this loss could amount to a sixth mass global extinction in our lifetime. The second set of challenges is the need to invest in the human capital required to harness the employment and development benefits of investing in innovative blue economy sectors. The blue economy aims to move beyond business as usual and to consider economic development and ocean health as compatible propositions. People also understand that the oceans are not limitless and that they are suffering from increasing and often cumulative human impacts. Water pollution occur when other substances are added by people and their activities. Asset maps highlight key materials and resources that is used by the local people and can include Challenges in the sustainable use of marine resources – such as the impacts of climate change in the form of rising sea levels, increased frequency and severity of extreme weather events, and rising temperatures – are going to have direct and indirect impacts on oceans-related sectors, such as fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, and on maritime transport infrastructure, such as ports, with broader implications for international trade and for the development prospects of the most vulnerable nations, in particular coastal least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing states (SIDS). - Life histories is when individual informants give a detailed account of their life regarding a specific issue from a historic perspective Time line and Time trend: can be used to notate a history of key events that shaped the life of the community. The goal is to design and develop effective materials that is needed for the program like training material such as information booklets or posters. The historical profiling is done to: Incorrect planting and irrigation methods that are followed may prevent the soil from rehabilitating itself. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers students a complete range of free resources for undergraduate, post graduate, PhD and professional courses. This report was drafted by a working group of United Nations entities, the World Bank, and other stakeholders to suggest a common understanding of the blue economy; to highlight the importance of such an approach, particularly for small island developing states and coastal least developed countries; to identify some of the key challenges its adoption poses; and to suggest some broad next steps that are called for in order to ensure its implementation. ' Ask 'WHY'? The group can then interpret what is being meant by the answers. - Let people draw a map of their household and resources / capacities on which they depend for survival (material/physical, social/organizational, motivational/attitudinal capacities). The essay first lays out a brief summary of ecotourism’s positive aims and the reasons why it has been considered a ‘magic bullet’ for sustainable development. In spite of this uncertainty, the current state of knowledge is sufficient to understand that these impacts will be felt on critical marine and coastal ecosystems throughout the world and that they fundamentally affect any approach to the management of marine resources, including by adding a new and increasing sense of urgency. - Social or Organisational: The way society is organised, internal dynamics and how it manages the family structures, leadership qualities and structures, patterns of decision-making, participation levels, social division and conflicts, community organisations, relationships to government as well as to the government policies and legislation. Tell them you would like to learn more about their lives. - Forecasting and prediction of events Employee Training and Development: The Benefits and Why it’s Important. It is important to note that the time in relation to the warning is subjective and can be interpreted different by different parties. The capacities and the resources that the community have becomes that foundation of their counter disaster plan that may include preparedness and mitigation measures that is often integrated within the development plan. ' - Get insight in the hazards from the past, how they changed in nature, intensity and behaviour - Short-term Warnings: issued from minutes ' hours ' days in advance. Poverty is as a direct result of human actions and there are many reasons for the magnitude and extent of poverty in developing countries but a prominent factor that contribute to large-scale poverty is food shortage. ' Step 2: Selection of the most cost effective objectives for the intervention plan. What is Sustainable Development?. Participatory Assessment Methods Sunida Piriyapada, Erda Wang, Quantifying the Costs and Benefits of Coastal Water Quality Improvements in the Ko Chang Marine National Park, Thailand, Environmental Processes, 10.1007/s40710-014-0013-y, 1, 2, (149-169), (2014). The reality of budget constraints will impact on risk reduction efforts. - Intermediate-term warnings: Can be issued weeks ' a few months in advance. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.iisd.org/sd/. People use a calendar and record the beginning and end of certain activities that make up their portfolio of livelihood activities such as crop-growing or annual livestock cycle. - Community health based challenges such as HIV / AIDS addy3c32c2377212b4372340269201eb3ec7 = addy3c32c2377212b4372340269201eb3ec7 + 'tralac' + '.' + 'org'; The idea is to find reasons or causes that contributed to the occurrence of a certain experience. With currently 1.2 billion tourists crossing borders each year, tourism has a profound and wide-ranging impact on societies, the environment and the economy. It is generally understood to be a long-term strategy aimed at supporting sustainable and equitable economic growth through oceans-related sectors and activities. I am currently writing a book on Sustainable Tourism and if you have case studies or papers that you would like to share, I would love to provide citation to your work kindly send me a … It is useful to create maps for both the area and the community levels in order to compare and illustrate how the area map show patterns of risks and capacities (which is useful in the planning policy or large-scale initiatives) and the community map gives more specific and detailed information needed to target those elements most at risk. - Maintain and enhance environmental quality The psychological vulnerability of the community increase if they feel victimised, fatalistic and dependent. At its core it refers to the decoupling of socioeconomic development through oceans-related sectors and activities from environmental and ecosystems degradation. These methods may include certain techniques such as observations, pilot studies, quantitative analysis and questionnaires. Initially the local service provider / facilitator can explain the assessment and its features but later the community leaders will take over the facilitating role. - Background on the community in the form of census, reports or research findings. ' This is the inventory of community resources. Higher living standards – i.e. Question 1 1.1. Maps can be made on different scales and can identify assets used by a group of households or they can identify the asset base of a community or district. Successful analysis and profile will provide you with an understanding of what the communities expectations are with regard to the organisation doing the analysis. The determined programme budget should be based on the needs of the intervention programme and must address development and implementation of the programme for the first year. Then choose the most effective approach within the limitations of available resources as well as selecting the programme objectives and establish the baseline data for the objectives. Coastal environments are often very dynamic and are highly variable in terms of the severity of exposure to natural conditions. - Strive to maintain and enhance quality of live To foster sustainable economic growth therefore, the PICs need to invest in niche markets, upgrade their transport infrastructure, improve access to trade and invest in environmentally sustainable industries. - Identify high-risk Victims: are those groups with high death / injury / property loss rates. The team must map the land and notes changing land use and availability of resources. Be sure to make an effort to manage expectations and remember that SL analysis does not lead to integrated projects but rather to targeted projects, therefore prioritization is a key factor. Produce and distribute materials: to succeed, assign production responsibilities; produce or purchase materials and distribute the materials to the target audiences - History taking can be started with current experiences and then going back in time. By bypassing the government of that community may be more cost effective and can be justified if that government manipulates the distribution of the aid but can be seen as a form of political interference. Understanding of these impacts is constantly improving and can be organized around several main “vectors”: acidification, sea-level rise, higher water temperatures, and changes in ocean currents. - Fires in Informal Settlements: As the migration of people from rural places continue to the urban regions, urban planners experience problems. Methods of Participatory Research Principals of sustainability Hazard Assessment: the goal is to specify the nature and behaviour of the potential hazards and threats that people in the community might face. A seasonal calendar is a form of a time line that focus on how the livelihood activities and access to assets change during seasonal cycles. E.g. Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction Intervention. It indicates how the local people view the role and effectiveness of the different institutional players, but further it also identify ways in which these players can change their policies (or practice) to be able to better support the people they serve. The features of the hazard must be considered in order to select effective preparedness measures. The time factor is relevant because decisions our grandparents made affect us today and decisions our generation make today will affect the future generations. A global forum on sustainable development on the economic benefits of climate change policies was held at OECD headquarters in Paris in July 2006. - Motivational or Attitudinal: How the society view themselves and their ability to affect their environment with regard to attitude towards change, perceived ability to affect the environment and get things done, religious belief, ideology, fatalism, dependence / self-reliance, unity / solidarity and cooperation. The interview within 1 hour and start by introducing yourself and stating the purpose of this step crucial! Of capacity assessment tool with regard to the assessment, in particular you will be emailed to observations... Implementation and enforcement at national level, policies are needed that support financing... In some way evacuation routes and sites and water sources for survival Employment... Disasters carry great risk of fires loss of life for people and wildlife,... Increase if they feel victimised, fatalistic and dependent members can validate information social derives... Their strengths and things that the group must organise the labelled circles on a sheet paper. ( PICs ) have increased by 169 %, reaching $ 9.6 billion in the coastal often! Environmental details people tend to have more confidence to plan for the mapping should information! Related disasters Enforcing pollution laws remains a very difficult task even if developing countries have legislation in place community a! Therefore capacity building can be interpreted different by different parties how fast arrives! As damage or loss of property in various ways. different policy or programme Initiatives about stops. Select effective preparedness measures is helpful as a system that interlinks space time... Analyse of the quantity thereof a good time to initiate drawing gathering about past.! Evaluation one should compare new data with the oceans are not able to economic. 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