According to this study, the central benefits estimate exceeds costs by a factor of more than 30 to one. 10 G Street NE Suite 800Washington, DC 20002, USA, Phone +1 (202) 729-7600Fax +1 (202) 729-7610, Collaboration on Nature-Based Solutions is Key to Resilient City Infrastructure, Leveraging the Ocean's Carbon Removal Potential, Using the Ocean As a Tool for Global Economic Recovery, Forests and Wetlands Are Water Infrastructure. Table 1.2 Indicative costs associated with the cost of coastal protection 10 Table 1.3 Key cost considerations for coastal works 11 Table 1.4 Example costs from the Environment Agency Unit Cost Database associated with beach recycling/recharge 13 Table 1.5 Example costs from the Environment Agency Unit Cost Database associated with coastal walls 14 While there is important interest in the conservation of habitats for the natural defence they provide, there is a particularly strong interest in investments in restoring coastal habitats for nature-based defences. Sustainable development is development which meets the needs of the ... would apparently be justifiable to impose costs of up to *1 million on people in ... suggested the use of a discount rate of 1.5% for balancing long-term costs and benefits of global climate change abatement. All costs were summarised on a per m2 basis. wave reduction, as well as location–i.e. Similarly, no wave reduction field measurements within oyster reefs were found. A literature search was performed in English for studies that describe measurements of wave reduction in coastal habitats, using Google Web, Google Scholar, Web of Science and other databases. Affiliation B ecause sustainable development relies on newer technologies and materials that cost more to produce, the overall costs are often more than that of traditional construction. For each pair of project and field measurement, the per metre project cost (Cproj_per_m) and width (Bproj) were transferred to the field measurement location and a nature-based defence (NbD) was defined with a unique combination of width (BNbD), cost (CNbD), rate of wave height reduction (rNbD), incoming wave height (HNbD) and water depth (hNbD): Studies that did not report data on either costs or benefits were also excluded. This will allow better understanding of variations in project costs with variations in water levels, wave conditions and habitat characteristics. In addition, coastal habitats are facing increasing risks world-wide as a result of human activity. upland and wetland habitats, development in coastal areas further degrades the coastal ecosystem. Develop and scale cost-effective sustainable designs while building the skills and capacity of governments to design and maintain sustainable coastal infrastructure. But critical questions remain about when these projects can be used effectively for coastal protection, for example about the costs of a habitat restoration project relative to other, more conventional alternatives. To successfully implement long-term ocean and coastal management plans, it is critical governments involve these communities in decision-making processes by: Diverting water before it gets to coastal areas can compromise the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. Restoration objectives vary across habitat types, with most mangrove and marsh habitats reporting coastal protection as a primary objective. the ratio H/h where h is the depth of the reef and H the wave height; and (ii) the relative width, i.e. Across all habitats, coral reefs emerge as having the greatest potential for coastal protection: they are highly effective at reducing wave heights and are also exposed to higher, more powerful waves. The field measurements are then mapped and, based on their location and habitat type, are combined with details of nearby nature-based defence projects. But when we consider the environment in terms of ecosystem services, that mindset can change. At the same time, growing human and environmental pressures in coastal areas have significant impacts on coastal systems, requiring urgent attention in many coastal areas globally. For each habitat the effect of habitat presence on wave height reduction was measured using a random effects statistical model [59]; see S1 Methods). The restoration project data are a mix of primary–i.e. The assistance and support of Dr. Filippo Ferrario, Laval University, Québec is also gratefully acknowledged. In our study, data from field measurements are used to directly investigate the influence of biophysical parameters on this variability (Fig 1). Unless there is a change in current practices, the loss of these ecosystems is expected to continue. We are interested in general conclusions about the parameters that influence wave reduction across multiple habitats and physical conditions. No, Is the Subject Area "Seaweed" applicable to this article? By shifting traditional infrastructure (known as “hard” or “grey” and made with concrete or steel) to blue infrastructure (made with natural/semi-natural approaches that mimic natural coastal areas), governments can increase resilience to changing climate conditions, support sustainable development of local communities and minimize the loss of ecosystem services. Circle sizes in (a) indicate the % wave height reduction measured at each site; shapes in (b) indicate type of coastal protection benefit reported (erosion control, flood control, or protection to structures) (see Table 1). Based on existing literature it was assumed that breakwater construction costs are uniform across the sites in Europe/USA and ten times lower for the sites in Vietnam [28]. Coastal areas are at risk as rising populations and growing urbanization prompt significant losses and damages to coastal habitats, impacting coastal and climate resilience. 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